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Mahmoud Asadi and Robert A. Woodroof, ProTechnics a Division of Core Laboratories, and J. Donald Dumas Jr., Core Laboratories
Chemical frac tracing is used to evaluate flowback and cleanup efficiencies. The technique utilizes a family of unique, environmentally-friendly, fracturing fluid compatible chemical tracers to quantify segment-by-segment recovery for individual fracturing treatments and stage-by-stage recovery for multi-stage fracturing treatments. These chemical tracers with their unique chemical characteristics are mixed at a known concentration into frac fluid stages as the frac fluid is pumped downhole. Upon flowback, samples are collected and analyzed for tracer concentration. With the use of the mass balance method the flowback efficiency for each stage is calculated. These precise flowback calculations yield a more accurate assessment of cleanup efficiency. This paper presents several case histories in which the technique was implemented. Results and fracture flowback prognoses are presented. The results are also used to assess post-frac performance as a function of flowback efficiency.
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